MB elements

Universal MB elements (Bakhir modules) related to the last generation of modern flow-through electrochemical module elements (known earlier as FEM elements) is essential part of all electrochemical devices.

History of development and improvement of flow-through electrochemical module elements – compact universal electrochemical reactors.

Name Year of creation Patent Differences
FEM-1 1 1989 GB 2 253 860 Flow-through electrochemical module elements for electrochemical treatment of diluted solutions of electrolytes and fresh water
FEM-2 2 1992 RF № 2042639
FEM-3 1994 RF № 2078738
FEM-4 1998 RF № 2145940
FEM-7 2000 RF № 2176989 Flow-through electrochemical module elements for electrochemical treatment of concentrated solutions of sodium chloride
FEM-9 2004 RF № 2270885
МB-11 3 2009 RF № 2350692 Flow-through electrochemical module universal elements – Bakhir modules for electrochemical treatment of water solutions of nonorganic electrolytes – chlorides, sulphates, carbonates – of any possible concentration
МB-26 4 2009 RF № 2350692
MB-10, MB-20, MB-30, MB-40, MB-50, MB-100, MB-500, MB-10005 2012 RF № 2012105962 Bakhir Modules are used both for electrochemical treatment of aqueous and nonaqueous solutions of electrolytes of any possible concentration including some element models for usage under conditions of increased pressure (till 20 kilogram-force/cm2) and temperature (till 120 ˚С).


  1. Number of model in a name of FEM elements shows increase of level of constructive and technological perfection of elements.
  2. FEM – flow-through electrochemical module elements.
  3. MB – flow-through electrochemical module elements of new generation – Bakhir Modules.
  4. Number of MB element model characterizes passage diameter of ceramic diaphragm.
  5. Number of MB element model characterizes average working value of current strength in amperes.

Years of research for optimal design of electrochemical cell run by V.M. Bakhir in early 70s of the last century resulted in creation of Flow-through Electrochemical Cell known as FEM-1 (Patent GB 2 253 860) in 1989.

Until that moment devices for production of electrochemically activated solutions were called in technical literature as devices for electrical treatment of water or electroactivator or (rarely) diaphragm electrolizers. In the beginning of 90-th term “electrochemical reactor” was put into technical vocabulary and for the first time its distinguishing features were formulated. Electrochemical reactor in comparison to its closest analogue diaphragm electrolyzer has additional technical and technological advantages in electrochemical conversion of various liquids, i.e. water and aqueous solutions of electrolytes with TDS from zero to saturated; milk, vegetable oil, mineral oil, solutions of carbohydrates, ammonia, alcohols, surface active agents, organic and inorganic fertilizers, pesticides etc. Electrochemical reactor provides optimal conversion of various by nature and by chemical composition liquids and gases due to combination of physical-chemical, electrical and mechanical properties of its construction and auxiliary materials, geometry and configuration of electrodes, electrode chambers, inter-electrode space and inside-diaphragm space. Optimal combination of all outlined parameters must be met for each cross-section of electrochemical chambers as intensity and mass transfer are changed significantly along the direction of inter-electrode media in proportion to current density, flows, chemical composition and concentration of initial components and products of electrochemical reactions in every micro-volume of inter-electrode space, including diaphragm.

First FEM-1 elements were produced during 3 years (1989 - 1991) by pilot plant of All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Medical Enginering (VNIIIMT), where the inventor V.M. Bakhir worked at that time.

FEM elements went through multiple improvements and a number of systems incorporated FEM elements were increased. Total number of commercially used FEM-1 elements did not exceed 1,000; a total number of FEM-2 (Patent RF N2042639, 1992) installed in electrochemical devices were 80,000 elements; a total number of FEM-3 (Patent RF N2078738, 1994) were over a million elements.

FEM-2 elements were produced by Soviet-British enterprise “Emerald” until 1996 based on the licensing agreement from patent holder. Emerald was manufacturing FEM-2 elements for some period of time after license was revoked, but had to stop after improved element, FEM-3, was introduced to the market. FEM-3 elements were serially manufactured by Laboratory of Electrotechnology (LET ltd.) from 1994 till 2008 by agreement between patent holder and enterprise.

New applications of electrochemical processes, which could result in economical and technical advantages in compare to traditional processes, required creation of new electrochemical modules, FEM-7 (Patent RF N2176989, 2000) and FEM-9 (Patent RF N3370885, 2004). Analysis of production and exploitation of FEM-3, FEM-4 (Patent RF N2145940, 1998) and FEM-9 helped to create electrochemical elements MB-11 and MB-26 (Patent RF N2350692, Bakhir's module) in 2009. MB-11 and MB-26 have improved electrochemical characteristics in comparison to previous generations of elements. All cells were manufactured at that time by LET according to agreement between patent holder and enterprise.

In the beginning of 2011 scientists and experts of Vitold Bakhir Electrochemical Systems and Technologies Institute have completed research work, which became a basis for creation of new generation of MB elements and new electrochemical systems. Rights for manufacturing of new elements and systems were assigned to company Delfin Aqua in 2011. Simultaneously LET was deprived of its right to manufacture all goods based on the named patents as well as any other patents of V.M. Bakhir and his co-inventors.

Beginning from July 2011 Delfin Aqua is the only company, which manufactures different configurations of MB elements under authorship control. New generation of MB elements has all the latest improvements. Particularly, production capacity is increased by 3 times, service life of element increased by 10 times. Power consumption of new elements varies from 60 to 2,000 Watt. All electrochemical systems manufactured by Delfin Aqua incorporate new elements.

MB electrochemical reactors are manufactured from advanced materials. Every electrochemical element produced by Delfin Aqua is sealed. Seal, as a guarantee and authorship control, contains the logo of manufacturer (Delfin Aqua) and the logo of Vitold Bakhir Electrochemical Systems and Technologies Institute, the leader in design and developments of systems and technology of electrochemical activation.

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