Concepts of electrochemical activation
Electrochemical activation as physical-chemical process is a combination of electrochemical and electrophysical actions, with minimal heat emission, on a liquid (mainly, water) with ions and molecules of diluted substances contained in it, in the area of space charge at the electrode surface (either anode or cathode) of electrochemical system with non-equilibrium charge transfer by electrons across the border “electrode-electrolyte”.
ECA application permits to replace conventional methods of chemical reagent treating to control solution properties, improve product quality, reduce number and time of process operations, reduce labor intensity. As compared to conventional electrochemical processes, initial substances in electrochemical activation are water-salt solutions, fresh or low-mineralized water, i.e. low electric conductivity liquids.
The end products of ECA are not concentrated chemical substances but activated solutions – anolyte and catholyte, i.e. low-mineralized liquids in metastable condition showing high chemical activity during relaxation. After a certain period or upon usage of electrochemically activated liquids and media in the technology process, relaxation process takes place – a gradual transfer of physical and chemical properties of solutions from metastable state to initial state of thermodynamic equilibrium.
Synthesis of electrochemically activated solutions is possible only during unipolar electrochemical action in combination with processing of maximum possible amount of microvolumes of liquid in high intensity electrical field of double electric layer at the electrode surface. Specified conditions of synthesis of activated solutions can be implemented exclusively in special-purpose technical electrochemical systems.
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